The effective and sustained engagement of stakeholders requires their active involvement in the implementation process at every stage in such a way that decisions are derived through a bottom up approach that emphasizes transparency and accountability [Bibliography item fg not found.].

Franke and Guidero (2012) describe in detail the processes involved in Identifying, Recruiting, and Engaging stakeholders and sustaining their support for the duration of a project (programme) and beyond.

In each of these processes communication and access to information are important factors:

  • Identifying: Stakeholders with better access to and control of information will carry more influence. Informational meetings, workshops and the continual and transparent exchange of information can solicit and help sustain the support of peripheral stakeholders.
  • Recruiting: Effective stakeholder recruitment involves (UN 2001, p. 13): 3. Establishing effective methods of communication between stakeholders, donors and governments; 4. Ensuring a commitment to open communication and information sharing among all parties.
  • Engagement : Of the four levels of intensity of stakeholder engagement, the three more basic ones have an important information and communications component: (1) information gathering; (2) dissemination; and (3) Consultation "listening to the views of stakeholders in order to improve policy questions, or make necessary changes during implementation".
  • Sustained support requires attention to specific concerns and priorities of each local community and of key stakeholders, the analysis of interests and perceptions, local ownership, the building of social capital, training and workshops, government support, and the addressing of grievances.


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